Diabetes Physiology & Pathophysiology

Type 1 diabetes immune system attacks and destroys the insulin producing beta cells of the pancreas. There is beta cell deficiency leading to complete insulin deficiency. Thus is it termed an autoimmune disease where there are anti-insulin or anti-islet cell antibodies present in blood. These cause lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the pancreas islets.
Type 2 diabetes condition is caused by a relative deficiency of insulin and not an absolute deficiency. There is Beta cell deficiency coupled with peripheral insulin resistance. Obesity is the main cause of insulin resistance. In most cases over time the patients need to take insulin when oral drugs fail to stimulate adequate insulin release
Gestational diabetes is a condition where there are excessive counter-insulin hormones of pregnancy. This leads to a state of insulin resistance and high blood sugar in the mother. There may be defective insulin receptors.

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