Genetic & Immunological Aspects of Diabetes

It is believed that a large proportion of cases of type 1 diabetes result from the autoimmune destruction of the pancreatic β cells. Genetic marker that makes person susceptible to diabetes is located on chromosome 6, and it’s an HLA (human leukocyte antigen) complex. Several HLA complexes have been connected to type 1 diabetes, and if the people have one or more of those, may develop type 1diabities. Fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) is a novel subtype of type 1 diabetes characterized by extremely rapid onset and complete deficiency of insulin due to the destruction of pancreatic β cells. It has been proposed that locally produced MCP-1 may be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy
A study also suggests that diabetes might be linked to genetics. To date, numerous mutations have been shown to affect type 2 diabetes risks. Genes associated with type 2 diabetes are:
  • TCF7L2, which affects insulin secretion and glucose production
  • ABCC8, which helps regulate insulin
  • CAPN10, which is associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Mexican-Americans
  • GLUT2, which helps move glucose into the pancreas
  • GCGR, a glucagon hormone involved in glucose regulation

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